Author: Jan Scholten
Botany: trees, shrubs, woody; flowers often imperfect, intrastaminal disk, nectar disk; leaves alternate, odd-pinnately compound; ovary superior, connate.
Content: silica; ethereal oils.
In the Apg3 classification Sapindales is one of the Orders of the Subclass Malvidae. Sapindales includes 6 big Families and 3 small ones. Sapindales has been recognised long as an Order with a stabile group of families in general.
In the first version of the Plant theory it is placed in Phase 4. Now Sapindales has been split in Rutales in Phase 4 and Sapindales in Phase 5.
Sapindales retains the families Sapindaceae, Simaroubaceae and Meliaceae. Sapindaceae is split in 5 Subfamilies
1. Dodonaeoideae, Subfamily of Sapindaceae: they start afresh every time to show their uniqueness.
2. Paullinioideae Subfamily of Sapindaceae: they feel not seen and of minor position in society.
3. Litchioideae Subfamily of Sapindaceae: they feel they have to please and adapt in society.
4. SHippocastanaceae Subfamily of Sapindaceae: the rules of society and culture are strong and too rigid.
5. SCupanoideae Subfamily of Sapindaceae: they feel limited by society, want to show their uniqueness more.
6. Simaroubaceae: they feel the victim of the society, the rigidity of it.
7. Meliaceae: they feel an outcast because they do not accept the rules of society.
Biebersteiniaceae has one genus Biebersteinia and is the first diverging lineage in Sapindales and can probably be included in Subphase 1 or 7; Central Asia; previously in Geraniaceae.