Author: Jan Scholten
0.4.0 Plant theory
“A theory is a fantasy confirmed by reality”
The result, the Plant theory, can be compared with a map of a city, the city being the Plant kingdom. The map makes the navigation in the Plant kingdom easier. It enlightens the understanding of old remedies in their comparison with new remedies and their relative place in the Plant theory. With the map one can navigate through the city and come to completely new places.
The main streets of the map are reliable. Some smaller streets might have a incorrect name that in the future might need to be changed.
The Families can be compared to streets.
The Stages can be compared to the house numbers. The navigation may lead to a house where no-one is home to open the door. This is the situation of a remedy that exist but has not been potentised yet.
The basic layout is built on the structure of the Periodic System of Elements. The seven rows or series of the Periodic System are fundamental in the classification of the Angiospermae. Plants belong to several Series. The more evolved and complex plants become, the more Series they belong to. The Plant kingdom is much more complex than the Mineral kingdom.
The classification uses the theme of 7 series, 7 Stages and 7 Phases repeatedly. Basically they are the same. The 17 Stages are also basically the same idea. It is the idea of a process of life and death, of creation and destruction. It is like a fractal, a basic pattern that is repeated over and over, in the large and in the small.
0.4.1 Phyla and Series
The Plant kingdom is divided into 6 Phyla. They are sometimes also called Divisions. They correspond with the 7 series. The Uranium series, however, is not represented in the Plant kingdom. The Uranium series can be connected to the Fungi. The Fungi are a very special clade that is recently seen as having more similarities with the Animal kingdom than the Plant kingdom. The rows, series, are connected to the following Phyla or Divisions.
For instance the first Division is the Algae, corresponding to the Hydrogen series. The Angiospermae correspond to the Gold series.
The rows, series, are connected to the following Phyla or Divisions.
1. Hydrogen series: Red and brown Algae.
2. Carbon series: Green Algae.
3. Silicon series: Bryophytae, Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts.
4. Iron series: Spore plants: Ferns, Lycopodophyta
5. Silver series: Gymnospermae.
6. Gold series, Lanthanides: Angiospermae.
7. Uranium series: Fungi.
The Uranium series has no representatives in the Plant kingdom so far. It seems to be that the evolution has not come that far yet. The fungi are an expression of the Uranium series as such but they are quite different from the plants and are placed in their own Kingdom by taxonomists.
This first division is further discussed in the next Chapter. The first 5 Phyla are relatively small and not extensively used in homeopathy. The main Phylum is the Angiospermae, the flowering plants. The major part of this book is about them. The divisions following below are applicable mostly to the Angiospermae.
1. Hydrogen series: Archaeplastidae, Algae.
The most primitive plants are algae. There are many kinds of algae, some of them are green and others like the red, brown and yellow algae. Algae lack leaves, roots, vascular structures, flowers, seeds. Traits fitting the Hydrogen series are that they are aquatics. Another name for this group together with the plants is Archaeplastidae. In the most recent taxonomies only the green algae are considered plants, belonging to the Viridiplantae, the green plants.
The algae consist of:
- Rhodophyta, the red algae, with about 6500 species, which are multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. They have eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, using floridean starch as food reserve, with phycobiliproteins as accessory red pigments, with chloroplasts lacking external endoplasmic reticulum and containing unstacked thylakoids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine and have sexual reproduction.
- Glaucophyta, also known as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a small group of freshwater microscopic algae.
- Chromalveolata, containing the brown algae. Fucus is a member of this group.
2. Carbon series: Green algae.
The green algae contain chlorophylls a and b and store food as starch in their plastids. They use sunlight for photosynthesis. They are aquatics.
The new principle is that of photosynthesis, which makes them independent of the source of energy, being only dependent on light.
The green algae form a monophyletic clade with the land plants, named Viridiplantae. Including the other algae would make the clade paraphyletic and thus there is a trend to exclude the other algae from the Plant kingdom and define separate kingdoms for them.
Green algae consists of two clades:
- Chlorophyta, meaning chlorophyll plants, include about 7000 species of mostly aquatics.
- Charophyta, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants, making it a paraphyletic group. They include the Charales or stoneworts.
3. Silicon series: Bryophytae, the Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts.
The third big group is the Bryophytes. They are land plants without vascular systems, flowers, seeds. They reproduce by spores.
Together with the vascular plants they are called Embryophytes, land plants. They mostly live on land, have a system to store water and a protection against drought.
The new principle is that of being land plants, which makes them less dependent on water.
The Bryophytes consist of:
Horneophytopsida are an extinct clade of the Bryophyta.
4. Iron series: Spore plants: Ferns, Lycopodophyta
The next development is that of the Tracheophytes, the vascular plants. They have stems, roots and leaves. The first group of the Tracheophytes is the ferns and club-mosses. They lack flowers and seeds.
The new principle is that of being vascular plants, which makes it possible to become bigger, to allow parts of the plant to specialise in function. This is what can be seen in the settlement of villages too, specialisation in functions, professions.
Another principle is the formation of wood. This makes it possible to become really big, like a tree. Most plants of the Phylum are small, like herbs these days but in the past many of the Equisetales were big trees.
The group consists of:
- Lycopodiophyta, club-mosses, including Lycopodium.
- Pteridophyta, ferns and horsetails.
The Equisetaceae are included in this clade, Equisetopsida (alias Sphenopsida).
The others are classical ferns, divided into:
Polypodiopsida (alias Pteridopsida, Filicopsida).
They also include extinct clades: Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, Trimerophytophyta.
5. Silver series: Gymnospermae.
The next development is that of seeds in the seed plants, Spermatophytes.
The new principle is the ability to produce seeds and to have sexual exchange. The exchange of DNA makes evolution possible at a much faster rate. It is like sharing ideas.
The first division is that of the Gymnospermae, meaning “naked seeds”. This group consists of:
- Pinophyta: conifers.
- Cycadophyta: cycads.
- Ginkgophyta: ginkgo.
- Gnetophyta: gnetae.
They include extinct clades: Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns.
6. Gold series, Lanthanides: Angiospermae.
The next development is the flowering plants. They are also called Angiospermae, Angiospermae, meaning having “covered seeds”. Another name is Magnoliophyta, plants similar to Magnolias.
The new principle is the flowers. It brings colour into the world. Before the Angiospermae all plants were only green, with brown and grey bark maybe but not having beautiful colours. Colour is a visual aspect, belonging to the Gold series.
Series 6, the Gold series, is not represented in this classification. The Lanthanides of the Gold series are the only part that can be found. I think that evolution hasn’t come that far as the Gold series yet.
This leads to philosophical considerations. If the Plant kingdom is not fully developed yet, it can mean that mankind is not fully developed yet. It could be that the Gold series aspects are not fully developed in the sense that power is not a common thing in humans, in the sense that everyone is or could be in power.
7. Uranium series: Fungi.
The Uranium series has no representatives in the Plant kingdom so far. It seems to be that evolution has not come that far yet. The Uranium series is best represented by the Fungi, a very special clade that is recently seen as more animal than plant-like. Fungi are quite different from plants and are placed in their own Kingdom by taxonomists. The Fungi will not be further discussed in this book.
The connection with the Uranium series is made clear by the following concepts: destruction, funeral, graveyard, death, fairy tale, atomic bomb, mushroom, radioactivity.
0.4.2 Classes and Series
Phyla are divided into Classes. These Classes also correspond with the Series of the Element theory. It is like a refinement of the themes. It can be seen as a fractal, a division of the whole is repeated in its parts.
There are no more classes than the level of the Phylum. In the Gymnospermae there can be 5 Classes and in the Angiopspermae 6.
The concept Class is not defined as such in the Apg classification. There are Clades in between Orders and Phyla but they are not given a name. Their ending is “-idae”, like Asteridae, Malvidae and Lamiidae.
Classes and Subclasses
In the Plant theory these clades are given the names Class and Subclass. The first division of a Phylum is into Classes and the Classes are divided into Subclasses. Classes are given the ending of “-anae” and Subclasses keep the ending of “-idae” like in the Apg classification.
The example of the Asteranae shows the situation. In the Apg classification the clade is called Asteridae. It contains the Campanulidae, Lamiidae, Cornales and Ericales. Ateridae then has the same ending as Campanulidae which in containded in it.
To better illustrate the classification of the Plant theory the clades were divided into Classes and Subclasses, each with their own ending.
This is mostly important in the Phylum of the Angiospermae. The correspondence is as follows:
1. Hydrogen series: Amborellales.
2. Carbon series: Magnoliidae, including Austrobaileyales, Nymphaeales, Chlorantales.
3. Silicon series: Monocotyledons.
4. Iron series: Fabidae, Eurosids 1, including Proteales, Sabiales, Trochodendrales, Buxales, Gunnerales, Vitales.
5. Silver series: Malvidae, Eurosids 2, including Saxifragales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Santalales.
6. Gold series: Asteridae, including Dilleniales.
The gold series is only represented by the Lanthanides, not the rest of the Gold series.
7. The Uranium series has no representatives so far.
0.4.3 Subclasses and Series
Classses are divided into Subclasses. This is a similar division as of Phyla into Classes. It is again a refinement of the themes, a kind fractal, a repetition of a division in the whole returning in its details.
It is a repetition of the evolution, as if it all starts over at the beginning of each clade or group. At the start of each clade we find the beginning series, the Hydrogen series.
The first Subclass is often a very reduced one, aquatics, with very reduced flowers and living conditions.
1. Hydrogen: Amborellales: Amborellacaee.
2. Carbon: Magnoliidae: Nymphaeales.
3. Silicon: Monocotyledons: Acorales.
4. Iron: Fabidae: Ceratophyllales.
5. Silver: Malvidae: Haloragales.
6. Gold: Asteridae: Berberidopsidales.
The full development of the groups becomes as follows.
1. 1. Hydrogen, Hydrogen: Amborellales: Amborellaceae.
2. 1. Carbon, Hydrogen: Nymphaeales.
2. 1. Carbon, Carbon: Magnoliidae.
3. 1. Silicon, Hydrogen: Acorales.
3. 2. Silicon, Carbon: Arales.
3. 3. Silicon, Silicon: Monocotyledons.
4. 1. Iron, Hydrogen: Ceratophyllales.
4. 2. Iron, Carbon: Ranunculales.
4. 3. Iron, Silicon: Protidae.
4. 4. Iron, Iron: Fabidae.
5. 1. Silver, Hydrogen: Haloragaceae.
5. 2. Silver, Carbon: Saxifragales.
5. 3. Silver, Silicon: Geraniales.
5. 4. Silver, Iron: Myrtales.
5. 5. Silver, Silver: Malvidae.
6. 1. Lanthanides, Hydrogen: Berberidopsidales.
6. 2. Lanthanides, Carbon: Dilleniales.
6. 3. Lanthanides, Silicon: Caryophyllales.
6. 4. Lanthanides, Iron: Ericales.
6. 5. Lanthanides, Silver: Lamiidae.
6. 6. Lanthanides, Lanthanides: Asteridae.
0.4.4 Orders and Phases
Classes are divided into 7 Phases, mostly Orders.
The 7 Phases are similar to the stages of the Carbon series and Silicon series, but are more abstract. I’ve named the groups Phases in order not to get confused with the 18 Stages. The numbers are not running parallel.
Divisions 2, 8, 18, 32
In the Periodic system and the Element theory the division in 18 Stages is very prominent. But when one looks more precisely the number of Stages depends on the Serie, the Row of the Periodic System.
The number of Stages can be calculated with the formula 2*n*n, where n is the row number.
1. Hydrogen: 2.
2. Carbon: 8.
3. Silicon: 18.
4. Iron: 32.
5. Silver: 50.
6. Gold: 72.
Due to energy states the number of elements in a row is gradually less than the calculated value. But the table shows that the 18 Stages as such are just one of the possible divisions. The division of 2 and 8 are also very important.
The division in 8 is prominent in the Carbon and Silicon series. This division is also very prominent in the Plant theory. To prevent confusion with the Stages I have introduced the name Phases.
In many clades there is only one representative. This corresponds with the division in 2, the one of the Hydrogen series in the Element theory and the Periodic system. Because the pause stage, Stage 18 relating to Helium and the noble gases, is non-existent in the Plant kingdom there remains only 1 Stage.
This division in one is especially prominent in the first member of every clade, the one that corresponds with the Hydrogen series.
One can see seven phases in almost any development. They are the seven phases of evolution. They represent the coming into being, growth, culmination and then going into decline and decay and oblivion in the end.
It must be kept in mind that the 7 Phases originate from the 8 Phases, like the 8 columns of the Carbon and Silicon series. But the last Phase, Phase 8 or 0, is the phase of denial. It is represented by the noble gases in the Mineral kingdom, the gases that do nothing, do not react with anything else. This Phase 0 does not exist in the Plant kingdom. It is similar to the 7 Series of the Periodic system: there is no Series 8 or 0.
Orders in Phase 1 have been unclear in the past as an Order. Examples are Celastrales in the Fabidae, Crossosomatales in Malvidae, Cornales with Garryales in Lamiidae and Aquifoliales in Campanulidae. The main Orders are often covering several Phases, as they are converging more to the main theme of the Subclass and thus are more uniform in morphology and DNA. Examples of this are Campanulales, Malvales, Lamiales and Gentianales.
0.4.5 Families and Subphases
Orders in 7 Subphases, Families
Orders are divided in 7 Subphases, the Families. This is especially so for the main groups. The beginning groups are often not divided, or work with one subdivision so to say. Examples are the Amborellales, having only one family, the Amborellaceae and the Acorales, having only one family, the Acoraceae.
The qualities of the Subphases are very similar in aspect to the Phases.
They have essentially the same quality as the Phases, they are just a further refinement, a precision. The difference is that they are less basic. An example may make this clear. Typha latifolia feels an outsider in his own family, “outsider” being Subphase 1 and “in his own stable family” being Phase 4. Alisma plantago feels like an outsider, desiring to have a stable family. Here the states are turned around. The Phase is 1, so he feels basically like an “outsider”. The Subphase 4 indicates the “desire to have a stable family”.
It is striking that in Subphase 1 there are often several small Families. The plants in Subphase 1 take on very divergent forms and thus are classified as different families. It is as if the theme of an Order has not found a definite form yet.
Subphases 3 to 5
The plants in Subphase 3, 4 and 5 have taken on a more consistent form and thus are placed in bigger families. For instance Fabaceae covers Phase 3, 4 and 5. The Subfamilies Mimosoideae, Caesalpinioideae and Papillonoideae are in the respective Subphases 3, 4 and 5. In the Plant theory they are split into their Subfamilies.
In the case of the Asteracae and Orchidaceae it would even be better to raise the Family to the level of Order and the Subfamilies to the level of Family. This change of level is not problematic as such, as the level of a clade is an arbitrary subject in the phylogeny. From the point of view of the Plant theory though it is an important question as it affects the allocation of the themes.
0.4.6 Genera and Stages
Families in 17 Stages
Each family can be divided into 17 Stages, the Stages forming the differential between the genera of a family.
Some Families have fewer Stages. For instance Acorales has only one Genus, Acorus.