Botany: trees, shrubs, woody; flowers often imperfect, intrastaminal disk, nectar disk; leaves alternate, odd-pinnately compound; ovary superior, connate.
Content: silica; ethereal oils.
In the Apg3 classification Sapindales is one of the Orders of the Subclass Malvidae. Sapindales includes 6 big Families and 3 small ones. Sapindales has been recognised long as an Order with a stabile group of families in general.
In the first version of the Plant theory Sapindales is placed in Phase 4, Including the Rutales In the second version of the Plant theory Sapindales has been split in Rutales in Phase 4 and Sapindales in Phase 5. Rutales keeps the families Rutaceae, Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae.
Rutaceae is split in the Subfamilies Spathelioideae, Toddalioideae, Aurantioideae and Galipeoideae. In the past Rutaceae was split in the subfamilies: Aurantoideae, Toddalioideae, Rutoideae and the smaller Spathelioideae, Flindersonioideae and Dystiolomatoideae. Of these only Aurantoideae stood up the phylogenetic tests.
1. Burseraceae: they alone in their elite surroundings.
2. Spathelioideae, subfamily of Rutaceae: they adapt in order to be recognised as elite.
3. Toddalioideae, subfamily of Rutaceae they feel not seen and of minor position in society.
4. Aurantoideae, Subfamily of Rutaceae: the rules of society and culture are strong and too rigid.
5. Galipeoideae, Subfamily of Rutaceae: they feel limited by society, want to show their uniqueness more.
6. Spondioideae Subfamily of Anacardiaceae, subfamily: they feel the victim of the society, the rigidity of it; they were special, belonging to the upper class, but are now rejected.
7. Rhosoideae, Subfamily of Anacardiaceae: they feel an outcast because they do not accept the rules of society.
Kirkiaceae: 2 genera: Kirkia, Pleikirkia; 6 six species; East Africa, Madagascar; previously in Simaroubaceae; Kirkia is a close relative of Burseraceae and Anacardiaceae and can probably be included in Burseraceae.
Cole, Theodor; Rutaceae Phylogeny Poster, February 2020; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324647641_RUTACEAE_Phylogeny_Poster_2020.
Cole, Theodor; Rutaceae Phylogeny Poster, February 2017; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319879942.
Groppo Milton & others; Phylogeny and delimitation of Galipeeae (Rutaceae, Sapindales) based on molecular data: insights on the evolution of zygomorphic flowers and staminodes; X1X international botanical congres, January 2017; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28138.00969.
Groppo Milton & others; PHYLOGENY OF RUTACEAE BASED ON TWO NONCODING REGIONS FROM CPDNA; American Journal of Botany 95(8): 985–1005. 2008.
Morton, Cynthia & Cheryl Telmer; New Subfamily Classification for the Rutaceae; Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 99(4):620-641;
Wei, Lai; Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of the Androecia in Ruteae (Rutaceae); Plos One; 2015.