Author: Jan Scholten
Botany: aquatic, wetland; 5 genera, 60-70 species; simple or compound leaves arise alternately from a creeping rhizome; inflorescence erect; flowers sympetalous, insect-pollinated; yellow or white; petals are ciliate or adorned with lateral wings; fruit is a capsule.
Genera: Liparophyllum, Menyanthes, Nephrophyllidium (deer cabbage), Nymphoides (floating heart, water snowflake), Villarsia.
Menyanthaceae have been placed in Gentianales in the past. The Apg3 classification has placed it in Campanulales.
The Campanulales are in Phase 3. Menyanthaceae is in Subphase 1, being mostly aquatics.
They feel only half-accepted and have the idea that they have to adapt in order to be acknowledged. There is a desire to do so on the one hand but an equally strong inclination to stay apart on the other hand. They often feel it is better to stay an outsider and remain alone than to give up one’s identity, autonomy and personality.
Having to adapt as a person, to be someone else.