Author: Jan Scholten
Names: Lilium Class; Monocots; Monocotyls; Monocotyledones; Monocotyledoneae; Lilianae; Liliopsida; Liliidae in the Dahlgren system and the Thorne system.
Names: from mono cotyledon, = one cotyledon; the primary or rudimentary leaf of the embryo of seed plants.
Botany: herbs; roots adventitious; stem vascular bundles scattered, sieve tube plastids cuneate; leaves parallel veined, petiole absent, stipules absent; cotyledon 1; seed have one; flowers 3 merous; sepals 3; petals 3; stamens 3 or 6; carpels 3; pollen monocolpate.
Lilianae or Monocots family has been recognised as a clade for centuries. The Apg3 classification treats the Lilianae in the same way, showing the concordance of DNA and morphology very well.
In plant theory, Lilianae are treated mostly according to the Apg3 classification.
The differences are that Orchidaceae is split off from Asparagales, and Araceaea are split off from Alismatales. This does not affect the monophyly of both groups, as the Orchidaceae is a first divergence of Asparagales, and Araceaea are a first split off from Alismatales according to the Apg3.
1. Hydrogen series: Acoridae
2. Carbon series: Aridae
2. Silicon series: Liliidae
The Lilianae have the themes of Hydrogen, Carbon and Silicon series together. In the Acoridae the emphasis is on the Hydrogen series. In the Aridae the emphasis is on the Carbon series. In the Liliidae the emphasis is on the Silicon series. The Acoridae and Aridae are small Subclasses, both with one Order and one Family. They can be seen as a limitation, a kind of regression of the theme of the Lilianae. The Liliidae is the main Subclass that expresses the themes of the Lilianae to the fullest.
The main theme is integrating their inner sense of who they are with their personality, their outer presentation of who they are. They want to be honest and true to themselves and at the same time they want to be attractive. They want to be themselves as a person and at the same time they want to get on well with others. On the one hand they have to discover themselves and be able to stay themselves, with all the good and bad aspects of themselves, and on the other hand they have to adapt to others to get on with others socially and form relationships.
It is mostly about how to combine a relationship with self worth, how to combine love with egotism, how to combine giving and taking. The theme of working and surviving in society is not present. It is about having children, but not about caring for them.
Peer Group, Adolescence
There is a strong desire to belong to a group of people their own age. Communication is a major issue for them. Communication is perceived as something that is difficult and has to be learnt. There is the fear of not belonging to the group, of being excluded and having to stand alone. We see the themes of the Silicon series here.
Image is another important issue for them; they want to have an image that their peers can relate to. They want to be thought of as attractive; and they like to be seen as friendly and likeable.
They feel more connected to their peers and friends than they do to society. They want to go out, they dislike the normal routine, boring things of daily life.
They can be unstable, they have a lack of grounding. This has a correspondence to the plant, to the adventitious roots of these plants; they are not strongly rooted at one point, they have many small roots.
It is like youngsters who have many places where they feel they belong and have ‘roots’; some of their roots are with their parents, they have roots with many of their friends, with their boyfriend or girlfriend, and they also have roots when they are living in student accommodation away from home at university.
They want to look good to be attractive. Clothing and fashion are very important to them, clothes have to be in cool, fashionable styles that are acceptable for the group. Dancing and music, especially rhythmic dance music ¬– are important ways they can contact with their peer group.
Sex is a theme of the Carbon series but here it is integrated with the Silicon series. For the Lilianae, sex is about making contact with someone, connecting with another person. This can give rise to many concerns and inner conflicts, like the fear of being rejected if they make their sexual desires known. Or they can fear being seen as a ‘nobody’ if they are not very sexually motivated. They may fear pregnancy and then fear being rejected by a sexual partner if they mention the risk of getting pregnant with them.
The first sexual encounter in adolescence is a departure from the close connection we have with our parents. It is a step towards leaving home, leaving the protection of your parents and starting your own life. Sex with a person in one’s own peer group is felt as being unfaithful, to your father if you are a girl, or to your mother if you are a boy.
So the sexual urge is strong but it is difficult to handle. They cannot just let go and indulge in their sexuality, for fear of being bad. This sense of being bad is linked to sexuality. They fear being seen as a whore or slut and being rejected by their social group.
They may suppress their sexual instinct, even going to the extreme of completely denying their sexual instinct. They can behave as if they do not need sex; it is too filthy. This is the particularly case if they have been sexually abused or rejected emotionally.
They fear being seen as impure, tainted; they want to stay immaculate, a virgin. This denial of sexuality can make them turn to religion instead, allowing them an outlet for their strong emotion. This religious passion in the form of the love for God is sublimated from disappointed love and denial of their sexuality. It may lead to living in celibacy.
The religious fervour is expressed as a sense of veneration, it is a very emotional, instinctual experience of religion.
They want to feel important, to be someone with value. This also relates to the Carbon series. They are interested in their own value, and they are especially interested in social values. To belong to the group they see it as important to share the same values. Discussions about the world and society can lead to strong debates. There is a strong sensitivity to injustice, in the form of what people do to each other.
They identify with their peer group; and so their values have to be different from those of the older generation in order to differentiate themselves as a separate group. They want to belong to a group and this enhances the group bonding.
Reputation is important to them. There is a need their reputation to stay untainted, unblemished.
There is a big fear of not being good, of being seen as a bad person, and not being accepted by the group.
They can be one-sided in their views, they only want to look at what they think is important. They miss the reflection and relative perspective shown by people of the older generation. It is like a kind of monomania. Their emotions and strong opinions can sometimes lead to dangerous behaviour; such as alcohol abuse and drinking themselves into a coma, driving dangerously fast to show off, or recklessly speeding on a motorbike to impress girls.
Feelings of shame and guilt for what they have done wrong or for things they should have done.
Anger, rage, fury, held in or expressed, < too many demands, being humiliated, degraded.
Sad, depression, < being rejected, having failed, being unloved, rejected, humiliated.
Apathy, indifference from the feeling that goals cannot be reached.
Image, clothing, looks, being attractive.
Desire the company of the group, friends; desire to belong to the peer group; desire to phone, chat, talk and spend time with friends.
Desire to be alone, to escape.
Feeling misunderstood, nobody understands them.
Idealistic, religious, worshipping, adoring, devout, pious.
Desire music, rhythm, dancing and singing.
Monomania, one-sided opinions, limited view.
Delusion: being pregnant.
Delusion: being poisoned.
Weather: flushes of heat.
Eyes: lachrymation, << cough.
Nose: hay fever, nose itching, sneezing.
Mouth: tongue cold.
Urinary: cystitis, urination frequent; urination involuntary, < cough, < sneezing, <<< labour, pregnancy.
Male: prostate problems.
Female: dysmenorrhoea, menorraghia, amenorrhoea, irregular menses; pelvis and uterus feel heavy and full; vaginitis, leucorrhoea; fibroids; uterus or pelvic inflammations; pregnancy and labour problems.