Author: Jan Scholten
English: holly order.
Botany: epiphyllous flowers.
Botany: twining vines.
This is a small order with 5 families and 3 genera. There is still much uncertainty about the families and members. Cardiopteridaceae members were formerly in other families, especially included in Icacinaceae. Cardiopteridaceae is rather diverse in spite of having only six genera. Cardiopteris is soemtimes put in its own family, the other five genera placed in Leptaulaceae. Phyllonoma has been placed in Grossulariaceae in the past. Helwingia has been connected with Cornaceae.
A possible connection to Subphases is the following.
1. Cardiopteridaceae: Cardiopteris, Citronella, Dendrobangia, Gonocaryum, Leptaulis, Peripterygium, Pseudobotrys.
2. Stemonuraceae: Cantleya, Codiocarpus, Discophora, Gastrolepis, Gomphandra, Grisollea, Irvingbaileya, Lasianthera, Medusanthera, Stemonurus, Urandra.
4. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex, Nemopanthus, Prinos.
5. Phyllonomaceae: Phyllonoma.
6. Helwingiaceae: Helwingia.
There is a great lack of information of the Aquifoliales. Only Aquifoliacae are known partially. The order is probably in Phase 1, like Lithium.
They have a feeling that they are alone in their endeavor for freedom and spirituality. They can easily be cheated due to their naïvety and honesty, not understanding that others would not be so honest. This makes them doubt the spirituality of people, the creation and God. They do not understand how such betrayal can be part of creation. They often prefer to stay alone in order to be free and to be able to go their own way.