Jan Scholten

0.5.2 Divergence with Apg3

The Apg3 classification is mostly adopted in the classification but in some aspects it had to be adapted to fit the homeopathic information and the Element theory. Mostly the adaptations are minor and not essential.

One adaptation is the splitting of orders into more orders. This is not violating the monophyly as the Orders are split according to suborders. Splitting has been done in the following cases.
1. Aristolochiales are split off from Piperales.
2. Arales are split off from Alismatales.
3. Cyperales and Bromeliaceae are split off from Poales.
4. Orchidales are split off from Asparagales.
5. Halogarales are split off from Saxifragales.
6. Cistales are split off from Malvales.
7. Rubiales are split off from Gentianales.
8. Verbenales are split off from Lamiales.
9. Campanulales are split off from Asterales.
10. Araliales are split off from Apiales.

In some cases Families and Orders have been merged.
1. Nymphaeales have been merged into Magnolianae.
2. Austrobaileyales and Chloranthales have been merged into Magnoliidae.
3. Trochodendrales, Sabiales, Buxales, Gunnerales and Vitales have been merged into Proteales, the only Order of Protidae. These Orders are all quite small except the Proteales and are neighbours in the Apg3 classification. They are not grouped together because that would make the clade paraphyletic. I think they can be placed together in the same way as the Gymnospermae, being paraphyletic but still being a group with similar characteristics. They can be seen as the group from which the other eudicotyls evolved.
2. Zygophyllales are merged with Fabales. This is done according to Hilu. The Zygophyllales were difficult to place according to the regular Apg3 classification. The placement of Hilu made things more logical.

In some cases, Orders have been replaced. This is mostly done in cases where the positioning is not very sure, especially in the early Orders of the Eudicotyledons.
1. Saxifragales have been put at the start of the Malvidae.
2. Dilleniales have been put at the start of the Asteridae. This places them just before the Caryophyllales, with whom they have a close relationship.
3. Berberidopsidales have been put at the start of the Asteridae, before Dilleniales. This placement is dubious, as we have no homeopathic information on its members.
4. Oleaceae placed within Rubiales.
4. Santalales have been put into the Malvidae. This is quite a shift that I have made after long consideration. The homeopathic information shows strong Silver series aspects and a lack of Lanthanide aspects. If confirmed, this placement is more logical than in Asteridae. It has to be taken into consideration that the placement of Santalales is dubious, has taken a long time and was only done in Apg3. The placement of Santalales is shifting in different cladistic researches.