Author: Jan Scholten
6.0 Neodymium physical
Neodymium is present in mischmetal to the extent of about 18%. The metal has a bright silvery metallic lustre. Neodymium is one of the more reactive rare-earth metals and quickly tarnishes in air, forming an oxide that spalls off and exposes the metal to further oxidation. It is one of the rare earth metals.
Atomic number: 60.
Discovery: 1885, Austria, Carl F. Auer von Welsbach
Name: New (= neo, Greek) twin (= didymos, Greek )
Toxicology: Mildly toxic by ingestion
Ore: Monazite, bastnasite, mischmetal
1. Didymium component: for coloring glass to make welder’s goggles.
2. Colors glass delicate shades ranging from pure violet through wine-red and warm gray. Light transmitted through such glass shows unusually sharp absorption bands.
3. Salts are used as a colorant for enamels.
5. Calibration of spectral lines in astronomy.
6. Lasers (to produce coherent light). Glass containing neodymium is a laser material in place of ruby to produce coherent light; infrared lasers with wavelengths (1054-1064 nm), e.g. NdYAG (yttrium aluminium garnet), NdYLF (yttrium lithium fluoride), NdYVO4 (yttrium orthvanadate), and Nd:glass.
7. Powerful permanent magnets - Nd2Fe14B. They are cheaper than samarium cobalt magnets. Much used in headphones
8. Nd2Fe14B is the most strong commercial magnet of 50-60 MGOe.
9. Nd2O3 is violet red, wine red, used in ceramic coloring and Nd Lasers.
10. 2NdF3 + 3Ca -> 2 Nd + 3CaF2.
11. Color glass; pure violet, wine red, warm gray.
12. Sharp absorption bands.
13. Color enamel.
14. Promote plant growth. Rare earth element are used in China as fertilizer.