Author:
Jan Scholten
Book:
Type:
Chapter:
3-666.00.00

Names: Campanulids; Bellflower class; Euasterids 2; Campanula Subclass.
Botany: Asteranae; ovary inferior; petals fused early; stamens equal petals, fused with petals.

Taxonomy
Campanulidae is one of the big Subclasses in the Asteridae Class in the Apg3 classification. In the Apg1 and Apg2 it was called Euasterids 2. It contains the Orders Aquifoliales, Bruniales, Campanulales, Dipsacales and Apiales.
In the Plant theory the Campanulales have been split in Campanulales and Asterales. This possibly makes the Campanulales polyphyletic. The strong Boron quality in Campanulales and the Carbon quality in Asterales makes the split inevitable. A similar situation is that of the Apiales. The Order has been split in Araliales and Apiales, which makes Araliales probably polyphyletic. The Nitrogen quality of Araliales is strong and the Chlorine element of Apiales is strong, making the split necessary.

Phases
1. Aquifoliales: they feel an outsider in their striving for autonomy.
2. Bruniales: they adapt, in contrast to their striving for autonomy and spirituality.
3. Campanulales: they are unsure and doubting their striving for autonomy and spirituality.
4. Asterales, Asteraceae: they feel justified in their aim for autonomy.
5. Araliales: they feel limited in their expansion in for autonomy.
6. Dipsacales: they feel used in their striving for autonomy and spirituality.
7. Apiales: they feel rejected because of their striving for autonomy.