Author: Jan Scholten
English: Bryophytes, Mosses, Spore plants.
DD: Silicon series.
There is no good name for this group. They are part of the Bryophyta, the land plants. But the Bryophyta contain also the Tracheophyta, the vascular plants. This group has not been given a name as it is not a monophyletic group because the Tracheophyta evolved out of them. On the other hand they are a distinct group.
The provisionary division of Bryophyta is
1. Hydrogen series: Anthocerotophyta: Hornworts; 14 genera; ± 100 species.
2. Carbon series: Marchantiophyta: Liverworts; 9000 species.
3. Silicon series: Bryophyta in the resticted sense: Mosses; 13000 species.
Evolution: first Embryophyta developed from green algae, 400 to 450 million years ago; 16000 species.
Botany: flowers absent; seeds absent; vessels absent; simple leaves cover the thin wiry stems; producing spore capsules which may appear as beak-like capsules borne aloft on thin stalks, for reproduction.
Mosses usually multiply vegetatively and sexually. There are two generations of sexual reproduction. The spore plant: the sexual organs develop on this; sporophytes grow on fertilized oocytes. The spore plants can be male or female, or even hermaphroditic. The female sex organs are called archegonia, the male sex organs spermatocytes. The spermatocytes are fissured and can move in a water drop to the female egg. The mosses need water for sexual reproduction. Male and female plants must grow near. Rain drops splash on the moss polster, there are the spermatocytes in it. Sometimes male and female plants are on a plant. Since sexual reproduction does not always work so well, mosses can also reproduce vegetatively; sprouts and leaflets can regenerate again. Mosses have two types: sex plants (gametophytes) and spore plants (sporophytes). The sporophyte always grows on the moss plant. What is perceived in the mosses is the sex-plant. In the ferns the spore-plant is perceived, that is, exactly the reverse.
Behavior of mosses
Moose reacts immediately to moisture, in some species this is very fast, so that they look immediately different (more beautiful), in some species it is slower. There are also species that are water repellent, which is in the species that grow in moist spots.
Moose can be quite long in dry condition; At some point they die, but that can take years.
They can not be composted. They have little nutritive contents, no pests, are not eaten; Only sometimes birds eat the spur capsules. There are no nutrients that are stored, they are very modest and take what comes from the atmosphere; they do not take nutrients from the soil, only from the air, e.g. also fine dust. They do not interfere; They tend to live day by day, as things come.
Some species occur together, depending on the location requirements; There also live in communities. They can change the location. They can sometimes be expelled from other, more powerful plants.
Mosses can populate extreme habitats, they are pioneering plants when it comes to growing habitats like loamy soil, rocky grounds, or burnt soil.