Author:
Jan Scholten
Book:
Type:
Chapter:
3-665.30.00

Botany: corolla plicate; leaves hairy, rough, felty, trichomes; inflorescences terminal, cymose, scorpioid; placentation parietal; ovary with secondary septae; pollen with pseudocolpi.
Content: pyrrolizidine alkaloids; iridoids lacking.

Taxonomy
Boraginales is not recognised in the Cronquist system and the Apg2 classification. In the Cronquist system, Boraginaceae includes Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae and Heliotropiaceae and is placed together with Lennoaceae in Lamiales; Hydrophyllaceae is placed in Solanales.
Boraginales is a new Order in the Lamiidae in the Apg3 classification, including only Boraginaceae. Boraginaceae as traditionally defined is paraphyletic and needs the inclusion of Hydrophyllaceae and Lennoaceae to become monophyletic.
In some recent publications Boraginaceae, as defined in the Apg3 classification, is split into several families: Boraginaceae, Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae and Lennoaceae; these families comprise the Order Boraginales.
In the Plant theory Boraginales is treated as an Order in the Lamiidae. Boraginaceae is treated as an Order, Boraginales. The Subfamilies are treated as Families in Boraginales. Boraginales have strong Boron qualities, which has a peculiar similarity in the name. Boraginales is placed in Phase 3. The difficulty to place them fits with Phase 3.
Boraginaceae is treated as split into several families, as indicated above.

Subphases
1. Hydrophyllaceae.
2. Wellstediaceae?.
3. Boraginaceae.
4. Heliotropiaceae.
5. Cordiaceae.
6. Ehretiaceae.
7. Lennoaceae.

Families
1. Hydrophyllaceae: 20 genera: ± 300 species; western United States.
Hydrophyllaceae: Codon, Draperia, Elliasia, Ellisia, Emmenanthe, Eriodictyon, Eucrypta, Hesperochiron, Hydrolea, Hydrophyllum, Nama, Nemophila, Phacelia, Pholistoma, Romanzoffia, Tricardia, Turricula, Wigandia.
2. Wellstediaceae ?.
3. Boraginaceae: 80 species.
4. Heliotropiaceae: Heliotropium, Tournefortia.
5. Cordiaceae: Coldenia, Cordia, Saccellium.
6. Ehretiaceae: Bourreria, Cortesia, Ehretia, Halgania, Ixorhea, Lepidocordia.
Menais, Patagonula, Rochefortia, Rotula, Tiquilia.
7. Lennoaceae: Ammobroma, Lennoa, Pholisma; parasitic plants.

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