Author: Jan Scholten
Names: Asteraceae, means radiating, star like; Compositae, means composite.
English: Sunflower family; Compositae.
Botany: 1100 genera; 25000 species; herbs, shrubs; cosmopolitan; flowers composite, radiant and tubular; open places, reacting to the sun; living in regions spoiled with oil.
Use: ornamental; oil
Culture: botanical clocks.
Content: inulin, polysaccahrid storage; sesquiterpene lactons; polyacetylenes; alkylamides; pentacyclic triterpenes; pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
Chinese: constricted liver Chi.
DD: Carbon; Magnesium.
Asteraceae has long been recognised as a family and had the name Compositae because of its composite flowers. Asteraceae has been shown to be monophyletic. In the Apg3 classification Asteraceae is included in Campanulales.
Traditionally Asteraceae had two subfamilies: Asteroideae or Tubuliflorae and Cichorioideae or Liguliflorae. Asteroideae is monophyletic and Cichorioideae has been shown to be paraphyletic. In other classifications the subfamilies of the Asteraceae are Barnedesioideae, Mutsioideae, Carduoideae, Cichorioideae and Asteroideae. Bremer includes Mutsioideae, Carduoideae in Cichorioideae.
Panero and Funk presented the following phylogenetic tree, taken over by the Apg3 classification:
Barnadesioideae: 9 genera, 93 species; South America, mainly the Andes.
Stifftioideae: South America and Asia.
Mutisioideae: 58 genera, 750 species. South America.
Wunderlichioideae: 8 genera, 24 species, mostly in Venezuela and Guyana
Gochnatioideae: 4 or 5 genera, 90 species.
Hecastocleidoideae: only Hecastocleis shockleyi; Southwestern United States.
Carduoideae: 83 genera, 2, 500 species; Worldwide.
Pertyoideae: 5 or 6 genera, 70 species.
Gymnarrhenoideae: Only Gymnarrhena micrantha; Northern Africa.
Cichorioideae: 224 genera, 3, 200 species; Worldwide.
Corymbioideae: only the genus Corymbium, with 9 species.
Asteroideae: 1, 130 genera and 16, 200 species; Worldwide.
Four subfamilies contain 99% of the species diversity of Asteraceae: Asteroideae 70%, Cichorioideae 14%, Carduoideae 11% and Mutisioideae 3%.
Asteraceae has a morphological complexity. As a result, several genera have required multiple revisions.
Cichorioideae has as Tribes Lactuceae, Vernonieae, Liabeae and Arctoteae.
Asteroideae has 3 groups of Tribes:
1. Inuleae and Plucheae.
2. Gnaphalieae, Calenduleae, Astereae, Anthemidae and Senecioneae.
3. Helenieae, Heliantheae and Eupatorieae.
In the Plant theory Asteraceae is split off from Campanulales and forms it own Order Asterales. Asterales is monophyletic, having one Family, Asteraceae.
For the Subfamilies:
1. Barnedesioideae is included in Mutsioideae and placed in Subphase 1.
2. Cardueae is kept out of Cichoroideae and placed in Subphase 2.
3. Cichoroideae is kept together and placed in Subphase 3.
4. Asteroideae, the biggest subfamily is split in four clades Heliantheae, Astereae, Senecioneae and Anthemideae.
From the point of view of the Plant theory it would be more elegant to raise Asteraceae to the level of Order and the Subfamilies to the level of Families.
1. Mutsioideae, including Barnadesioideae.
4. Heliantheae, Helenieae, Eupatorieae.
5. Astereae, Gnaphalieae, Calenduleae, Inuleae, Plucheae.