Author: Jan Scholten
Names: Angiosperm; Magnoliophyta; Flowering plants.
Botany: flowers, with sepals, petals, stamens with 2 lateral thecae of 2 microsporangia, carpels, bisexual, actinomorphic; leaves simple, entire, alternate, pinnately veined; female gametophyta reduced, 8 nucleate; male gametophyte reduced, 3 nucleate; ovules bitegmic, = with 2 integuments; fruits, with endosperm; 2 cotyls.
The Angiospermae is Phylum 6 of the Plant kingdom. It is the biggest part of the Plant kingdom with about 16000 genera and 250000 species.
Angiospermae are also called Magnoliopsida. The name Magnoliopsida is sometimes used for Dicotyledons, the Angiospermae without Lilianae. The clade Dicotyledons is polyphyletic and not used in the Plant theory. The clade Eudicotyledons consisting of Fabanae, Malvanae and Asteranae is monophyletic.
1. Hydrogen series: Amborellanae.
2. Carbon series: Magnolianae.
3. Silicon series: Lilianae, Monocots.
4. Iron series: Fabanae.
5. Silver series: Malvanae.
6. Gold series, Lanthanides: Asteranae.
The Angiospermae were split into 2 main groups monocotyledons and dicotyledons, also called monocots and dicots. The name comes from the cotyls, the leaf after sprouting. In the dicots there are 2 cotyledons, in the monocots only 1.
The Monocots has turned out to be monophyletic and is thus treated as one group. In the Plant theory it is named as Lilianae.
The dictyledons are polypheletic, the more primitive ones that are placed in and near magnolianae.
he more developed ones are called Eudicots or Eudicotyldons and placed in Fabanae, Malvanae and Asteranae. The majority of them are also called core Eudicots.
Only clades at the start of the Eudicots do not belong to the Core eudicots. These are in the Orders Ceratophyllales, Ranunculales, Proteales, Sabiales, Troichodendrales and Buxales. In the plant theory these are placed in Ceratophyllidae, Ranunculidae, and Protidae.