Author:
Jan Scholten
Type:
Chapter:
655.30.00

655.30.00 Malvales
English: Malva order.
Botany: 204 genera; 2300 species; phloem stratified with fibrous and soft layers; hairs stellate; sepals connate; leaves with malvoid teeth, palmate venation; stamens numerous, develop centrifugally from a few bundles; nectaries of glandular hairs; typical infloresence.
Content: sesquiterpenes; sesquiterpene quinones; thorbromine; caggeine; flavonols; cyclopropenoid fatty acids; mucilage.

Taxonomy
The order of the Malvales has been established a long time. But the exact placement has been problematic. It was for a long time thought to be connected with the Rosales. In the Cronquist system Malvales included Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, Bombacaceae, Tiliaceae and Elaeocarpaceae
Numerous molecular phylogenies have shown that those families as traditionally defined are paraphyletic and closely related. This has resulted in expanding Malvaceae to include the other families. The traditional families are now treated as subfamilies of the extended Malvaceae. The membership though of many genera has been transferred to other subfamilies and new subfamilies have been created:
Byttnerioideae, Grewioideae, Sterculioideae, Tilioideae, Dombeyoideae, Brownlowioideae, Helicteroideae, Malvoideae, Bombacoideae.
In the Apg3 classification 3 groups can be distinguished in Malvales: the Families Thymelaeaceae and Neuradaceae that are early diverging, Cistales and Malvaceae.
In the Plant theory the order of the Malvales is split into 3 clades: Malvales, Cistales and Thymelaeaceae with Neuradaceae. Malvales is placed in Phase 3 of Malvidae. Cistales, with Cistaceae and Dipterocarpaceae is placed in Phase 5 of Malvidae. Thymelaeaceae and Neuradaceae are placed in Huerteales in Phase 2.
The extended Malvaceae is raised to the level of Order, Malvales and the subfamilies are treated as families.

Subphases
1. Sterculiaceae.
2. Tiliaceae, including Dombeyoideae.
3. Malvaceae.
4. Bombacaceae.
5. Brownlowiaceae.
6. Helicteriaceae:
7. Grewiaceae, Byttneriaceae.

Introduction
They have to please others in order to be accepted by the group and to get into a position of distinction. They want to be special, have a special position in society as a manager or teacher, as an artist or scientist. They like to be revered for their unique qualities. But they feel that they have to hold themselvesin, in order to be appreciated. They feel they can only half be themselves and half the personality demanded by family or society. They feel they have to suppress half of themselves, their anger, their sexuality, their weird and chaotic ideas. They fear being humiliated when expressing their unwanted sides, their shadow side. It leads to conflicts of loyalty, in their family, with their parents, in their marriage, in society.
They like to be seen as warm and lovely, to be loved by everybody. In order to attain that they can be quite outgoing, showing that they are there. As a child they have the same strong desire for a bond, mostly with the mother.

Mind
Loyal, desire to belong to a group; deny parts of themselves to belong to the group.
Aversion: anger, quarrels, conflicts, disharmony.
Ailments from showing emotions, anger, convictions, feelings.
Airy, untidy, transitory; ungrounded.
Sensitive, to noise.
Mirth, cheerful, excitement, affectionate.
Reserved, hold in their anger.
Fears.
Theme: cotton; slime.
Split between love and sex.
Suppressing their anger, aggression, sexuality.
Desire to be loved, appreciated.
Desire: harmony, art, knowledge, culture, music.
Fear: separation.
Delusion: separated from the world; being alone; being watched.
Delusion: split, confusion of identity.
Dreams: murder; death; accident; death of a friend.

General
Sensation: bond, attachment and loss of connection, wind.
Weather: intense cold.
Sweat: profuse, < night.
Desire: sweet, juicy, fresh; tobacco; chocolate.
Aversion: cheese; chocolate; coffee.
Food: > eating.

Body
Vertigo: < riding in a car, tramcar, at sea, < roundabouts, roller coaster.
Nervous: paralysis; tendency to fall, sideways.
Eyes: eruptions, lateral canthi.
Nose: pain, root; sinusitis, chronic, ethmoid.
Mouth: eruptions, corners.
Throat: inflammation; voice hoarse, lost.
Stomach: anxiety.
Heart: palpitation.
Female: miscarriage; milk scanty; lactation problems; infertility; dysmenorrhoea.
Back: backache, as giving way, < bending forward.
Skin: hard; thick callosities; cracks, deep and bleeding; eruption, itching, scratching till raw.